There are various types of surface treatments which can be applied to ultra-fine materials to promote bonding between dissimilar products.
Conditioning can be defined as treatment of a surface (surface treatment) that increases its critical surface energy for adhesion. In general, conditioning is defined as the treatment of a surface to increase its critical surface energy. The surface energy of a coating, namely a primer or a silane, must overcome the surface energy of the substrate surface.
The most commonly used surface modifiers in numerous applications are silane coupling agents (silanes). They have the characteristic property to bond both inorganic and organic dissimilar materials together. In general, silanes form a large chemical group of hybrid inorganic-organic compounds containing direct Si-C bonds.
Surface conditioning methods are used in conjunction with the silanization of filler particles, glass fibers, and ceramic surfaces. This emphasizes the importance of the role of a silane coupling agent in the promoting adhesion.
Silanation is one of the many surface treatments which can be performed by CPS.
Other surface treatments include heat treating and air entrainment. Air entrainment consists of adding a surfactant (a surface-active type of chemical such as a detergent) to a dry cementitious mix.